Researching the Hulse families, we started with genealogical records going back hundreds of years. DNA testing has only recently become commercially available to us to check our Family trees with DNA evidence.
There are three types of DNA tests that one can take, each of which has a distinct use.
The three DNA tests are mtDNA, Y-DNA tests and Autosomal DNA,
mtDNA tests use genetic material from the mitochondria, the structure that produces energy for the cell. Mitochondria is inherited exclusively from the mother, so mtDNA test results trace the
Comparing the results to other individual’s known results provides probability of relationship, i.e. common ancestral Mother.
Comparison to a known reference model can reveal the most likely Haplogroup.
A Haplogroup is a genetic population group who share a common ancestor, on the matriline (female line) or the patriline (male line).
mtDNA results suggest that all present day humans descend from one common female, estimated to have lived 99,000–148,000 years ago.
Y-DNA tests use the genetic material of the Y-chromosome. Men have one X and one Y chromosome, Women have two X chromosomes. The Y-chromosome is inherited only by the sons, so Y-DNA test results
trace the Paternal line.
Comparing the results to other known results provides probability of relationship, i.e. common ancestral Father.
Comparison to a known haplotype can reveal the most likely patriline (male line) Haplogroup. Since Haplogroups are defined by a “Single Nucleotide Polymorphism” (SNP), a SNP test confirms the Haplogroup.
Y-DNA results suggest that all present day men descend from one common male, estimated to have lived 120,000–156,000 years ago.
Autosomal DNA test use the genetic material from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the X-Y sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of X-Y or X-X sex chromosomes.
Autosomal DNA tests are the most useful test for building a family tree and checking possible cousins. It is usually accurate for three to five generations, but can show matches as far as eight generations, while some lines may drop out after three generations.
DNA comparison is a developing science. It requires knowledge of the family tree and history to effectively use the DNA results. The Y-DNA results are most useful when they clearly disprove a
relationship, when the probability of being related is near zero.
Having different Haplogroups is an example of clear evidence of low chance of relationship. High correlation of Y-DNA results, 70% at eight generations or 90% at 12 generations, is highly suggestive of close relation, but not proof of specific relationship.
In Autosomal DNA a 25% shared DNA can indicate a grandchild, or nephew or niece, or uncle or aunt. It does not tell us what the exact relationship is, but does indicate that a relationship does exist.
For Hulse research, we use the Autosomal test results first to help check a family tree of a Hulse Clan or Family Unit. The 37-marker Y-DNA test determines the paternal haplogroup. The STR markers are used to group tests and calculate a number of generations to a common ancestor.
DNA testing is not cheap. It is available from several websites. A full set of all available DNA testing can run to $400 or more. We watch for sales and can suggest when they might be coming up soon. For example, some Autosomal tests come on sale several times a year for about $59-$79, down from the usual $99. Y-DNA tests is usually on sale about twice a year, with a Y-37 marker test on sale of $139, down from usual $169 full price. Y-DNA tests are currently offered for $149 after joining the surname project and ordering thru the project, if you are too impatient to wait for a sale
We currently recommend that a autosomal test be ordered at Ancestry DNA and then transferred to FTDNA, where we have our Hulse-Holsaert project. Ancestry has the largest database while FTDNA provides us with the Chromosome browser tool, and adds additional database coverage.
To see our project results for Y-DNA, check the publicly accessible web site.
It does not show matching or ethnicity results.
Most of the test results in our FTDNA Hulse-Holsaert project are in Haplogroup I1 using SNP of M253. Haplogroup I1 covered about 20% of what is now Europe.
SNP testing has shown the Hulse line from Long Island, New York (Clan R) have tested positive for SNPs of L22, P109, S14887, and S18218 or I-S8175. This suggests that the Clan R line came from
what is now southern Denmark, about 4000 years ago.
Two of our test results have Haplogroup R1b, which covered about 70% of what is now Europe. The Hulsaert line has tested as Haplogroup R1b.
We have one test result with Haplogroup I2, using SNP I-A13906, this is a very rare SNP with only four tests that have this SNP, three in America from English or Scottish ancestry and one in France. These are thought to have a common ancestor 4100 years ago. If you are in Family Unit #35 you should test this SNP.
For clarification, further enlightenment, and suggestions of what DNA tests would be best for you, and our Hulse Research, contact us for more information.
Our Hulsenet DNA Administrator
Albert Allen Hulse
Brian Hulse – 12th generation Clan R